Since 7 July 1999.


Key Dates and Events in the History of Munich

10/11th century On the banks of the Isar, monks from Tegernsee Abbey establish a settlement called "Munichen" (the name derives from the German word for monks, "Mönche"). The municipal coat-of-arms recalls the city's monastic origins.
1158 Founding of the city by the Guelph, Henry the Lion. This duke destroys the Bishop of Freising's toll bridge over the Isar and establishes a town market and mint. First city fortification.
1180 After the expulsion of Henry the Lion, Bavaria becomes part of the territory controlled by the Wittelsbachs.
1255 Munich becomes the main residence of the Wittelsbachs.
1314-1347 Reign of Ludwig IV ("the Bavarian"), who is made Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Munich becomes the imperial capital and, 1340, is granted city privileges. Construction of the second defensive ring wall.
1467-1508 Under the rule of Albrecht IV (called "the Wise"), the city enjoys a high point in Gothic culture with artists such as Grasser and Polack.
1505 Munich becomes the capital of united Bavaria.
1550-1579 Duke Albrecht V supports the Counter Reformation. Building of the Antiquarium in the Residence.
1609 Setting up of the Catholic League.
1618-1648 Thirty Years War.
1632 Occupation of Munich by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (Gustav II Adolf)
1634 The plague results in 7 000 deaths - one-third of the city's population.
1651-1679 Under Elector Ferdinand Maria, start of the construction of the Theatiner Church.
1679-1726 Prince Elector Max II Emanuel. After triumphs over the Turks, a change of political fortunes leads to the occupation of Munich by Austrian troops in 1705-1714 as a consequence of the War of Spanish Succession. A peasant rising against the occupation forces is brutally suppressed ("Sendlinger Christmas Massacre" with the famous figure, the "Smith of Kochel"). During this Elector's reign, extension of Nymphenburg Castle and Schleissheim Castle.
1777-1799 Prince Elector Karl Theodor. Union of Bavaria and the Palatinate (Phalz).
1799-1825 Prince Elector Max IV Joseph (after 1806, King Max 1).
1800 Occupation by French troops of the Revolutionary Army.
1806 Bavaria becomes a kingdom.
1810 A horse race on the occasion of the wedding of the Crown Prince begins the tradition of the Oktoberfest.
1818 Bavaria receives its first constitution.
1825-48 Under Ludwig I, Munich becomes the "Athens of the Isar". Extension of the Residence, construction of Ludwigstraße and Königplatz.
1826 Munich becomes a university city.
1846 Munich's population reaches 100 000.
1848 The "March Uprising" leads to political unrest throughout Germany. First German parliament meets in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt.
1848-1864 King Max II
1886-1912 "Prince Regency" under Luitpold
1918 November Revolution under the leadership of Kurt Eisner. Flight of King Ludwig III and proclamation of the Free State of Bavaria.
1919 The communist soviet republic (Räterepublik) is brutally crushed by troops of the Reichswehr.
1923 Failure of Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch.
1933 Construction of the concentration camp in Dachau.
1939 Abortive attempt by Georg Elsner to assassinate Hitler in the Bürgerbräukeller.
1943 Execution of the Scholls, the leaders of the resistance group, the "White Rose".
1945 After the Second World War, the city is a scene of devastation, with nearly half of its buildings destroyed. A remarkable rebuilding effort (nicknamed "Rama Dama") begins under Mayor Thomas Wimmer. Not only are almost all of the city's historic buildings rebuilt, but also many new suburbs are added.
1946 New Bavarian constitution. Munich becomes the capital of the Free State of Bavaria.
1957 Munich's population reaches 1 million.
1966-1972 Construction of the city's subway and streetcar network.
1972 The 20th Summer Olympic Games are held in Munich. Arabian terrorists hold members of the Israeli team hostage in the Olympic village. The rescue attempt ends with bloodshed and tragedy.
1980 A bomb attack during the Oktoberfest claims 12 lives.
1981 Opening of the Neue Pinakothek.
1985 Opening of the Gasteig Arts Center.
1992 World Economic Summit Meeting in Munich. Opening of the Franz Josef Strauß Airport.
1993 Completion of the Bavarian State Chancellery buildings.

| Contact and Feedback |